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Non ci può essere sostenibilità ambientale senza quella economica e sociale

Quando nel gennaio del 2017 ero in viaggio sulla Transiberiana (Transmongolica per la precisione), uno dei luoghi che mi colpì di più fu la capitale mongola Ulan Bator. La città era avvolta da una spessa coltre , che le conferiva un’aura di fascino e mistero insieme. Mi ci volle qualche giorno per capire che, a causa della difficoltà che provavo nella respirazione, più che una condizione atmosferica, quella nebbia era formata dalle polveri sottili sprigionate dalla combustione del carbone.

Un ragazzo locale mi fece notare come Ulan Bator fosse due città insieme, da una parte il centro storico e finanziario e tutt’intorno, progredendo verso l’esterno, una fitta distesa di abitazioni informali.

Come si può osservare in questa foto, questa distesa di case e tende tipiche (comunemente chiamate iurta, o ger in mongolo) arrivano fino al cuore della città, dove svettano gli edifici del governo e della finanza. La Mongolia è un paese in cui la disuguaglianza economica è fortissima e, come spesso accade, questo è molto evidente nella struttura urbana della sua capitale.

Allo stesso tempo, il paese è ricco di risorse minerarie, in particolare di carbone, che a causa del rapido sviluppo industriale cinese è sempre più richiesto per la produzione di energia. Lo stesso carbone viene utilizzato dalle fasce più povere della popolazione, quelle che vivono ai margini della capitale, per riscaldarsi durante l’inverno. Come ho avuto modo di provare, in inverno in Mongolia le temperature possono arrivare fino a – 40°C e riscaldarsi bruciando carbone rappresenta l’unica possibilità di sopravvivenza.

Credo che questa sia al tempo stesso una immagine e una metafora potentissima. L’aria, così come gli altri elementi, è molto democratica: sia su scala locale che globale viene respirata da tutti indistintamente. Nel caso di Ulan Bator, l’inquinamento atmosferico è un problema tanto del povero che del ricco, eppure mentre il primo non ha scelta, il fatto curioso è che al secondo sembra non importare poi tanto. Se il povero fosse messo nelle condizioni di non doversi riscaldare con il carbone, tutti ne gioverebbero.

Come dicevo, questo parallelo vale anche a livello globale: senza uno sforzo comune e condiviso sarà impossibile raggiungere gli obiettivi di sostenibilità ambientale che ci siamo prefissati. Il cambiamento climatico è un fenomeno complesso in cui entrano in gioco molte variabili e può essere risolto solo attraverso la collaborazione e la cooperazione internazionale.

I Paesi più ricchi dovrebbero da una parte mettere in atto politiche per ridurre le emissioni di gas a effetto serra e dall’altra sostenere la transizione dei Paesi in via di sviluppo, che ad oggi non hanno le risorse economiche per farcela da soli.

In riferimento alla crisi ambientale, i sostenitori della giustizia climatica supportano l’idea che i più colpiti dai cambiamenti climatici e dagli eventi catastrofici ad essi legati, saranno proprio coloro che meno hanno contribuito alla loro manifestazione. Di nuovo, tanto alla scala locale che globale, saranno le comunità più povere a pagare il prezzo più alto, perché più vulnerabili agli eventi estremi. In questo senso possiamo intendere la povertà proprio come dipendenza e scarsezza di risorse.

È chiaro quindi, che la sostenibilità debba essere declinata nelle sue tre accezioni: ambientale, economica e sociale. Queste tre componenti sono così connesse e interdipendenti che è impossibile considerare l’una senza le altre. L’esempio della città di Ulan Bator è paradigmatico di questa impostazione del problema, senza una visione olistica e di ampio respiro, appare difficile risolvere le sfide che il mondo contemporaneo ci pone.

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192 risposte su “Non ci può essere sostenibilità ambientale senza quella economica e sociale”

ciao, e’ interessante la prospettiva di analisi….
quanto scrivi, suggerisce e innesca molte riflessioni e molti spunti del macro problema della sostenibilita’ .
da molto tempo penso, anche se su scala diversa, che intervenire senza la coesione di economia e societa’ civile, non si possono applicare strategie risolutive davvero efficaci a cambiare le cose.

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